Local media reported an explosion outside the Institute of Criminology in the Neder-Over-Hembeek suburb of Brussels, just after midnight last night.
The blast caused significant damage to the building, but there were no casualties as the facility was closed at the time.
Authorities said a vehicle rammed through three outer fences before coming to a halt in a car park outside the lab. It is understood the explosion happened soon after.
An investigation into the cause of the blast is ongoing.